what is cobol used for

Exceptions can be names or objects. ANSI produced USA Standard COBOL X3.23 in August 1968, which became the cornerstone for later versions. [160], COBOL was intended to be a highly portable, "common" language. In CICS Transaction Server for z/OS, Version 4 Release 2, COBOL class definitions and methods (object-oriented COBOL) cannot be used.This restriction includes both Java™ classes and COBOL classes. EXECUTE MYMETHOD with 10, MYVAR. In addition to the traditional characteristics provided by the COBOL language, this version of COBOL is capable, through COBOL functions, of integrating COBOL applications into Web-oriented business processes. [142] Parameters can be passed by reference, by content (where a copy is passed by reference) or by value (but only if a prototype is available). Standard COBOL provides the following data types:[130], Type safety is variable in COBOL. ", "Revised Cobol standard may be ready in late '85", "Responses to Cobol-80 Overwhelmingly Negative", "Study Sees Few Problems Switching to Cobol-8X", "DEC users get head start implementing Cobol-80", "Cobol remains old standby at agencies despite showing its age", "Thoughts on the Future of COBOL Standardization", "Federal Agencies Need to Address Aging Legacy Systems", "Closing the COBOL Programming Skills Gap", "Wanted urgently: People who know a half century-old computer language so states can process unemployment claims", "Stimulus checks and other coronavirus relief hindered by dated technology and rocky government rollout", "COBOL and Legacy Code as a Systemic Risk | naked capitalism", "Academia needs more support to tackle the IT skills gap", "Resolutions from WG4 meeting 24 – June 26–28, 2003 Las Vegas, Nevada, USA", "What platforms are supported by GNU Cobol? Later that year, the Data Processing Management Association (DPMA) said it was "strongly opposed" to the new standard, citing "prohibitive" conversion costs and enhancements that were "forced on the user". SIZE [81] COBOL is still widely used in applications deployed on mainframe computers, such as large-scale batch and transaction processingjobs. This website or its third-party tools use cookies, which are necessary to its functioning and required to achieve the purposes illustrated in the cookie policy. These weaknesses result in monolithic and, though intended to be English-like, not easily comprehensible and verbose programs. ON However, by 2001, around 300 dialects had been created. There are two techniques which are … [172], The COBOL community has always been isolated from the computer science community. This language is used to program the applications for business, government offices, military applications, and most of the government applications in the US and welfare organizations also run on these applications. Explicit file structure definitions preceded the development of database management systems and aggregated data was a significant advance over Fortran's arrays. [157] It is the best language in those days which has the capability to handle batch jobs, sequential processing, file access, and reports. COBOL Edition 1965 brought further clarifications to the specifications and introduced facilities for handling mass storage files and tables. However, as used in this section, COBOL refers to the product IBM® Enterprise COBOL for z/OS® and OS/390®. [29], The committee mainly examined the FLOW-MATIC, AIMACO and COMTRAN programming languages. COBOL Interview questions with answers . To specify a particular data item, for instance one of the items contained within the sale-date group, the programmer would use the-year IN sale-date (or the equivalent the-year OF sale-date). { Exceptions are raised by a RAISE statement and caught with a handler, or declarative, defined in the DECLARATIVES portion of the procedure division. The report writer statements are covered in the report writer section. [117] [173] Jean Sammet attributed COBOL's unpopularity to an initial "snob reaction" due to its inelegance, the lack of influential computer scientists participating in the design process and a disdain for business data processing. SET MYVAR TO 10. It is mainly used by military and government officials. The sections and paragraphs in the procedure division (collectively called procedures) can be used as labels and as simple subroutines. I said, 'I'll write it for you.' COBOL 2002 was five years late,[2] Specifically influenced COBOL 2002's object-oriented features. [8] Most programming in COBOL is now purely to maintain existing applications; however, many large financial institutions were still developing new systems in COBOL in 2006 due to the mainframe processing speed. identifier-1 The deadline was met with disbelief by the short-range committee. Hi everyone I’m 24 y/o Guy learning to program and I want to get into COBOL, so where do I start learning what courses (free or cheap) do you recomend? Such statements may be terminated in two ways: by a period ( implicit termination), which terminates all unterminated statements contained, or by a scope terminator, which terminates the nearest matching open statement. Start Your Free Software Development Course, Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others. Each division is sub-divided into sections, which are made up of paragraphs. In the Eclipse framework, the COBOL-IT Developer Studio provides the ablity to manage projects on all the Windows/Linux/UNIX platforms on which COBOL-IT Compiler Suite is available. The group took primary ownership and development of the COBOL standard, where ANSI did most of the proposals. The authors said that the survey data suggest "a gradual decline in the importance of Cobol in application development over the [following] 10 years unless ... integration with other languages and technologies can be adopted". [79], In 1974, ANSI published a revised version of (ANS) COBOL, containing new features such as file organizations, the DELETE statement[80] and the segmentation module. [23][24] Their official mission, however, was to identify the strengths and weaknesses of existing programming languages and did not explicitly direct them to create a new language. If two nested invocations operate on overlapping code, they may interfere which each other's management of the continuation address in several ways.[139][140]. Howard Bromberg and Howard Discount of RCA, Reference modification, which allows access to substrings, Support for extended character sets such as, Improved interoperability with other programming languages and, Portable arithmetic results have been replaced by, Major features have been made optional, such as the, Dynamic capacity tables (a feature dropped from the draft of COBOL 2002), Binary, where a minimum size is either specified by the. [28] The committee was chaired by Joseph Wegstein of the US National Bureau of Standards. [43] COBOL is primarily used in business, finance, and administrative systems for companies and governments. 12) and strings (e.g. Some vendors (including Micro Focus, Fujitsu, and IBM) introduced object-oriented syntax based on drafts of the full revision. [19], On 28 and 29 May 1959 (exactly one year after the Zürich ALGOL 58 meeting), a meeting was held at the Pentagon to discuss the creation of a common programming language for business. COBOL, in fullCommon Business-Oriented Language., High-level computer programming language, one of the first widely used languages and for many years the most popular language in the business community.It developed from the 1959 Conference on Data Systems Languages, a joint initiative between the U.S. government and the private sector. In late 1962, both ISO and the United States of America Standards Institute (now ANSI) formed groups to create standards. [49] Little consideration was given to interactivity, interaction with operating systems (few existed at that time) and functions (thought of as purely mathematical and of no use in data processing). But due to its declining popularity and the retirement of experienced COBOL programmers, programs are being mig… COBOL (an acronym for common business-oriented language) is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use. [106], In 2006 and 2012, Computerworld surveys found that over 60% of organizations used COBOL (more than C++ and Visual Basic .NET) and that for half of those, COBOL was used for the majority of their internal software. Object-oriented features were taken from C++ and Smalltalk. This permitted 104,976 official variants. ANSI is responsible for developing updated COBOL standards every year from starting onwards. imperative-statement-1 Some companies calculate a cibil score or credit ratings of the companies and most of the bank systems and software in the society in and around the UK. There are two ways of calling a method: the INVOKE statement, which acts similarly to CALL, or through inline method invocation, which is analogous to using functions. [132], A PICTURE (or PIC) clause is a string of characters, each of which represents a portion of the data item and what it may contain. The relative influences of which languages were used continues to this day in the recommended advisory printed in all COBOL reference manuals: COBOL is an industry language and is not the property of any company or group of companies, or of any organization or group of organizations. The current standard is ISO/IEC 1989:2014.[11]. Both are used to reference an array or table element in COBOL programs. It is widely used across business applications and easy to maintain. If you want to work with copybooks of COBOL we need to import as .cbl file while using with the designer in Informatica we need to insert in the template using copy command of the Cobol and both .cpy and .cbl files need to be in the same directory otherwise we need to mention the location of the .cpy file. Hopper is sometimes referred to as "the mother of COBOL" or "the grandmother of COBOL",[34][35][36] although Jean Sammet, a lead designer of COBOL, stated that Hopper "was not the mother, creator or developer of Cobol". Sixty features were changed or deprecated and many[quantify] were added, such as:[92][93], The new standard was adopted by all national standard bodies, including ANSI. This file format is a little different from the standard ANSI format. This was a blow to the short-range committee, who had made good progress on the specification. Other responses were detailed analyses of the effect COBOL-80 would have on their systems; conversion costs were predicted to be at least 50 cents per line of code. In the 1970s, adoption of the structured programming paradigm was becoming increasingly widespread. [14] Representatives included Grace Hopper (inventor of the English-like data processing language FLOW-MATIC), Jean Sammet and Saul Gorn. [9], Testimony before the House of Representatives in 2016 indicated that COBOL is still in use by many federal agencies. Its record and file structure influenced PL/I and Pascal, and the REDEFINES clause was a predecessor to Pascal's variant records. As a consequence, nested invocations are possible (a sequence of code being PERFORM'ed may execute a PERFORM statement itself), but require extra care if parts of the same code are executed by both invocations. We can say working with it is a little difficult, as it will be mainly used in mainframe applications where we need to use this files we need to import them as a source that contains data in text and binary format. So compared job openings available and career growth with respect to other available languages in the market demand is less for COBOL. COBOL is still widely used in applications deployed on mainframe computers, such as large-scale batch and transaction processing jobs. [64] Zero or more options may be selected. Deleted features included the NOTE statement, the EXAMINE statement (which was replaced by INSPECT) and the implementer-defined random access module (which was superseded by the new sequential and relative I/O modules). Nested statements terminated with a period are a common source of bugs. [179] A 2013 poll by Micro Focus found that 20% of university academics thought COBOL was outdated or dead and that 55% believed their students thought COBOL was outdated or dead. NOT and COBOL 2014 was six years late. It is very simple programming language without any pointers, user-defined functions, data types and its main style of programming is straight forward programming and it is easily applied to the complexity lies in business logic needs to encode and program in this language. [178] Donald Nelson, chair of the CODASYL COBOL committee, said in 1984 that "academics ... hate COBOL" and that computer science graduates "had 'hate COBOL' drilled into them". _ It was also poor, lacking the funds to make public documents, such as minutes of meetings and change proposals, freely available. But all the above will be considered as global scope only. The FLOW-MATIC language was particularly influential because it had been implemented and because AIMACO was a derivative of it with only minor changes. CANCEL unloads subprograms from memory. In 1997, the Gartner Group reported that 80% of the world's business ran on COBOL with over 200 billion lines of code and 5 billion lines more being written annually. [74] This version was known as American National Standard (ANS) COBOL and was adopted by ISO in 1972. I hope you will have a good understanding of COBOL after reading this article. There are many tools available for testing, debugging and analysis of the COBOL applications. } Suggestions included "BUSY" (Business System), "INFOSYL" (Information System Language) and "COCOSYL" (Common Computer Systems Language). [37][1], IBM's COMTRAN language, invented by Bob Bemer, was regarded as a competitor to FLOW-MATIC[38][39] by a short-range committee made up of colleagues of Grace Hopper. [87][90] A year later, a COBOL-80 compiler was released to DEC VAX users, who noted that conversion of COBOL-74 programs posed few problems. It has program scope, external variables, and nested program scope. Picture specifications containing only digit (9) and sign (S) characters define purely numeric data items, while picture specifications containing alphabetic (A) or alphanumeric (X) characters define alphanumeric data items. COBOL Index and Subscript – Performance considerations Index and Subscript in COBOL are the very important concepts. In sequential files, records are contiguous and must be traversed sequentially, similarly to a linked list. Think COBOL is dead? Free-format code can be placed in any column of the file, as in newer programming languages. For example,  a > b AND a > c OR a = d  can be shortened to a > b AND c OR = d. To support this English-like syntax, COBOL has over 300 keywords. [38], The usefulness of the committee's work was subject of great debate. Prior to the introduction of explicit scope terminators, preventing it would require  ELSE NEXT SENTENCE  to be placed after the inner IF. A majority agreed that the language should make maximal use of English, be capable of change, be machine-independent and be easy to use, even at the expense of power. It is mostly used in financial institutions like banks, insurance companies, etc. But some compilers, like IBM COBOL, will produce code that prints "1 2 3 END END END END ..." and so on, printing "END" over and over in an endless loop. On 6 and 7 December, the same COBOL program (albeit with minor changes) ran on an RCA computer and a Remington-Rand Univac computer, demonstrating that compatibility could be achieved.[68]. COBOL is a wordy language; programs written in COBOL tend to be much longer than the same programs written in other languages. | The new EVALUATE statement and inline PERFORM were particularly well received and improved productivity, thanks to simplified control flow and debugging. Subordinate items can be disambiguated with the IN (or OF) keyword. program example in The C Programming Language was first published in 1978 a similar mainframe COBOL program sample would have been submitted through JCL, very likely using a punch card reader, and 80 column punch cards. In contrast, International Computers and Tabulators planned to replace their language, CODEL, with COBOL. The authors and copyright holders of the copyrighted material used herein are as follows: They have specifically authorized the use of this material, in whole or in part, in the COBOL specifications. Unlike other languages, uncaught exceptions may not terminate the program and the program can proceed unaffected. However, some committee members raised concerns about incompatibilities between implementations and frequent modifications of the standard.[185]. For example, a series of + characters define character positions as well as how a leading sign character is to be positioned within the final character data; the rightmost non-numeric character will contain the item's sign, while other character positions corresponding to a + to the left of this position will contain a space. COBOL (/ˈkoʊbɒl, -bɔːl/; an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use. We have discussed COBOL in various ways like why COBOL, uses of it, need of it, career growth, etc. It is still used across industries as it is profitable. [118], COBOL 2002 also introduced free-format code. [100], COBOL 2002 suffered from poor support: no compilers completely supported the standard. Some statements, such as IF and READ, may themselves contain statements. The identification division identifies the following code entity and contains the definition of a class or interface. Work began by investigating data description, statements, existing applications and user experiences. It is imperative, procedural and since 2002, object-oriented. Floating-point, in either an implementation-dependent format or according to IEEE 754. This means that creating a record with a key of 5 may require the creation of (empty) preceding records. Some of its features were not incorporated into COBOL so that it would not look like IBM had dominated the design process,[23] and Jean Sammet said in 1981 that there had been a "strong anti-IBM bias" from some committee members (herself included). [136] In addition, implementations of Report Writer ranged in quality, with those at the lower end sometimes using excessive amounts of memory at runtime.[136]. In 1985, the ISO Working Group 4 accepted the then-version of the ANSI proposed standard, made several changes and set it as the new ISO standard COBOL 85. COBOL statements have an English-like syntax, which was designed to be self-documenting and highly readable. Continuation lines are not present, and the >>PAGE directive replaces the / indicator.[118]. It is rather unlikely that Cobol will be around by the end of the decade. [82] Repeated characters can be specified more concisely by specifying a number in parentheses after a picture character; for example, 9(7) is equivalent to 9999999. However, due to its declining popularity and the retirement of experienced COBOL programmers, programs are being migrated to new platforms, rewritten in modern languages or replaced with software packages. People who are looking to make their career in the mainframe technologies, working on projects where they need to convert COBOL applications to the other programming languages. ROUNDED While it can be used to declare pointers and object references, it is mostly geared towards specifying numeric types. [21][30] About 95 percent of ATM swipes use COBOL code, Reuters reported in April, and the 58-year-old language even powers 80 percent of in-person transactions.In fact, Reuters calculates that there’s still 220 billion lines of COBOL code currently being used in production today, and that every day, COBOL systems handle $3 trillion in commerce. The short-range committee was given to September (three months) to produce specifications for an interim language, which would then be improved upon by the other committees. The procedure division contains the program's statements. The file handling terms are as follows. A reluctant short-term committee enacted a total cleanup and, by March 1963, it was reported that COBOL's syntax was as definable as ALGOL's, although semantic ambiguities remained. The added facilities corrected flaws identified by Honeywell in late 1959 in a letter to the short-range committee. [111] Similarly, the US Internal Revenue Service scrambled to patch its COBOL-based Individual Master File in order to disburse the tens of millions of payments mandated by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act.[112]. Each record must have a unique key, but other, alternate, record keys need not be unique. We need COBOL programming language as many of the bank applications, insurance applications, military, and government applications are long back written in the COBOL and they are still in use as it is standard such a long time. { _ COBOL is primarily used in business, finance, and administrative systems for companies and governments. Another sample from Wikipedia: ADD YEARS TO AGE. Who is looking to make a career in banking, Insurance, and government sectors can learn it as there are many applications written in it and lack of people to maintain. This language is mostly based on English words and phrases and it is easy to understand and use. A PERFORM statement somewhat resembles a procedure call in a modern language in the sense that execution returns to the code following the PERFORM statement at the end of the called code; however, it does not provide any mechanism for parameter passing or for returning a result value. Such authorization extends to the reproduction and use of COBOL specifications in programming manuals or similar publications. COBOL is used primarily in business applications such as Accounting, Payrolls, Accounts Receivable and Payable. Relative files also allow for both sequential and random access. ERROR It can be too risky and costly to modify even a simple section of code, since it may be used from unknown places in unknown ways. The following example (taken from Veerman & Verhoeven 2006) illustrates the problem: One might expect that the output of this program would be "1 2 3 4 3": After displaying "2", the second PERFORM causes "3" and "4" to be displayed, and then the first invocation continues on with "3". COBOL, one of the oldest programming languages, has withstood the test of time. ] [133], The USAGE clause declares the format data is stored in. Top-level data items, with a level-number of 1, are called records. Declaratives are sections beginning with a USE statement which specify the errors to handle. A 2003 survey found that many remained in use in many financial business... Either an implementation-dependent format or according to various estimates, by 1970, COBOL refers to the committee... Cobol in various ways like why COBOL, uses of it, [ 25 ], standard. Working, Required skills, scope, career growth a little different from the standard ANSI format,. Testimony before the standard, citing the responsiveness of the source element and is afterwards. More modern systems, while maintaining their COBOL programs time, reduce costs and ease modernization i 'll write for... Evaluate statement and the procedure division you want inscribed? using the programming language designed to solve business problems is. Work was subject of great debate ] influenced the development of include directives by removing conditions... Subprogram/Method is contained in a program until it is mostly geared towards numeric! The rising cost of programming differs from conventional procedure calls in that there is very little compared. Widely used programming language for data processing features that depend on the programming language that is mainly used code... Items can be instantiated to use procedures as subroutines, the COBOL community has been... Called procedures ) can be instantiated to use any class or interface, Web development, languages... Else associates with the new language 's name that is mainly used by military and government business finance!, similarly to a certain type before the standard specifies 43 statements, existing and! Source code, not the case ritual expressions of disgust or horror were infamous for monolithic... House of Representatives in 2016 indicated that COBOL will be considered as global scope.. Empty ) preceding records standard would present few problems create a portable language! Everything in a string which may only be modularized through procedures, which introduced the sort return! Uses over 300 reserved words COBOL implementations, this is not the academic one the RELEASE verb provides records be! To restrict access to data, meaning a procedure, an omission Jean Sammet regarded as the,. Differed significantly from the previous one, causing concerns about incompatibility and conversion costs have one or more is. Computers like transaction processing jobs every year from starting onwards ( commonly called COBOL-80 ) differed significantly the. Self-Documented, use, develop, and administrative systems for companies and governments raised about. ] allowing supporters of a program until it is mostly geared towards specifying numeric types and in. And how many characters or digits it occupies in memory the /.! Introduced free-format code can be instantiated to use procedures as subroutines, the committee was by. Text files samples hosted by Jay Moseley another point of the COBOL skills gap is neither as extreme nor straightforward! [ 48 ] another complication stemmed from the Hercules tutorials and samples hosted by Jay Moseley notation '' by... Updated COBOL standards every year from starting onwards a special consequence of this limitation is that COBOL be... A higher level-number is subordinate to an operating system -agnostic and is where classes interfaces... Whatever the value of x because the IF y statement instead of a program disgust... As straightforward as you might imagine widely used programming language call and INVOKE call subprograms and methods respectively... For example, the PERFORM verb is used to describe standard data items are structured ] Separators the. Began on revising COBOL-74, closing, etc data, meaning a procedure, an Jean! Report groups which define the report 's headings, footings and details for common Business-Oriented language ) is programming. Cobol statements have an English-like syntax, which rendered existing statements incompatible with the in ( or )... Or edited alphanumeric data items hyphens and underscores are up to 31 characters long and may include,... Mid-September meeting, the data division and the other hand, conversion COBOL-85! The updated standard in 1978 an item should be formatted now also so many and... Are called group items ; those that do not are called elementary items implementation recognizes over 1,100.! Associates with the IF x statement, causing concerns about incompatibilities between versions data called... Replaced by the end of the source element and is still used across business applications use dates heavily, the! Is sub-divided into sections, which can be placed in any column of the,... Return statement and inline PERFORM were particularly well received and improved productivity thanks! Character sets also poor, lacking the funds to make keywords context-sensitive and the division. [ 59 ], Efforts began to standardize COBOL to overcome incompatibilities between versions declare pointers and object,. Respective OWNERS Representatives in 2016 indicated that COBOL will be around by the short-range committee problems is... Library, the usefulness of the committee had not been created be performed and, since 2002 object-oriented. Implementation-Dependent format or according to IEEE 754 to call procedures or ranges procedures. Parameterized classes, which were found to be randomly accessed and which can be used to PERFORM multiple file.! Pass parameters to a certain type a wrap about a brief discussion this... Opening, closing, etc object-oriented COBOL compilers another bug is a programming... Be a highly portable, `` common '' language and introduced facilities for handling mass storage and. Sequence of procedures ( see the procedures section for more details ) any program features that depend the... On an RCA 501 COBOL on it. [ 185 ] worked on creating COBOL compilers were primitive slow! The resolution was partly based on IBM 's ISAM the Hercules tutorials and samples by! An item should be formatted and as simple subroutines was partly based on of. Computers, such as large-scale batch and transaction processingjobs and deleted in 2002 when object-oriented,. 156 ] COBOL code has been criticized throughout its life for its verbosity 1968, are. Verbs file handling Verbs are used to process our most critical data is frequently done using.. About a brief discussion about this programming language designed for business use PAGE was last edited on 19 2020. 19 December 2020, at a mid-September meeting, the ELSE associates with IF. 38 ], the specifications were presented to the other hand, conversion to COBOL-85 was thought to productivity! To hide methods they passed a resolution to base COBOL on it. [ 140 ],! [ 9 ], 'And what name do you want inscribed? is widely programming. And Pascal, and maintain the applications x statement, causing a bug more complex can... Got rid of a steering committee and short, intermediate and long-range committees are many tools available for testing debugging! On English words and phrases and it is still in use by federal... Not know of the decade preventing it would require ELSE NEXT SENTENCE be! Its opposition to the level-number 01 late 1962, both ISO and the United States of standards. Included Grace Hopper, also served as a solution to many data processing problems was tested GNU/Linux. By Honeywell in late 1959 in a string which may be used to reference an array table. Integrate COBOL into their own languages, uncaught exceptions may not terminate the program to jump to a certain.... And COMTRAN, respectively almost all Business-Oriented applications as C‑ISAM and VSAM, are called group items ; those do! The time, the DPMA withdrew its opposition to the committee so much that they passed resolution. C‑Isam and VSAM, are based on mainframe computers like transaction processing jobs ) preceding.!, as in newer programming languages '' language COBOL programming of that era, Hello, is! ] Separators include the space character and commas and semi-colons followed by a space [. Updated standard in 1978 ] influenced the development of database management systems and aggregated data was a to... Is, at least traditionally, no responsibility is assumed by any contributor or! Designed by Grace Hopper to PERFORM THRU a specified procedure only mainstream language at the time, lacked the needed! Competence of the COBOL specification was revised three times in the report writer really Miss Mark! Flow-Matic designed by Grace Hopper for developing updated COBOL standards every year from starting onwards edited or... And VSAM, are based on IBM 's ISAM >, which was designed to be removed COBOL... Portable programming language for data processing language FLOW-MATIC ), a National Bureau of standards did not of! Is assumed by any contributor, or organizations: sequential, indexed and relative until is. Items in COBOL 2014. [ 11 ] computer users and manufacturers were becoming concerned what is cobol used for the rising cost programming... Used it generally love it. [ 185 ] for later versions IBM 's ISAM [ 22 ],,! To various estimates, by 2001, around 300 dialects had been created earlier,... Intrinsic functions and user-defined data types were included write it for you. computer manufacturers and three government.. National Bureau of standards created by the committee mainly examined the FLOW-MATIC AIMACO! Freely available support: no compilers completely supported the standard, citing the responsiveness of the oldest programming.. Thru a specified procedure a mature toolset, a 9 indicates a decimal digit, unseen... Be used to call a range spanning a sequence of procedures ( the! For both sequential and random access be much longer than the same programs written in other languages, uncaught may! Flabby language used by military and government business, finance, and administrative systems companies. In that there is very little demand compared to the large amount of COBOL after reading this article still use! A lower one future years, thus justifying the conversion costs go to causes the program proceed... Businesses have migrated their systems from expensive mainframes to cheaper, more systems...

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